Welcome to National Research Centre on Pig
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Welcome to National Research on Pig
AIRCP on Pig
 
All India coordinated research project was initiated during IVth five year plan (1970-1971) with the main objective of studying the performance of pure breed pigs under existing managemental conditions at the following research centers.
i)
ANGRAU, Tirupati, Andra Pradesh.
ii)
AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam.
iii)
JNKVV, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
iv)
IVRI, Bareilly, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh.
 
 
During IVth and Vth five year plan, the research work was conducted with the exotic breeds of pig (Large white Yorkshire at Tirupati and Jabalpur, landrace at Khanapara and Izatnagar) with the following objectives:
   
i)
To assess various genetics parameters of economically important exotic breeds of pig genetics available in India with a view to utilize the same in selection index and for making genetic advancement.
ii)
To investigate the effect of protein energy ratio on production of pig and to conduct nutritional experiment to find out low cost and reasonably economic pig feed for different locations.
iii)
To study the occurrence of pig diseases and to find suitable control measures against the same.
 
 
By the end of Vth five year plan, it was realized that there was urgent need for improvement of indigenous pig in view of their large number and high economic importance to the rural population. It was also realized that breeding technologies need to be developed to evolve a suitable type of pig having optimum efficiency of feed conversion in farm as well as rural condition. Therefore, to give a multidisciplinary approach in pig production, the technical programme of AICRP on pig was completely remodeled in the beginning of VIth five year plan to undertake research work first on indigenous pig and then subsequently on the crossbreeding by crossing indigenous female with appropriate exotic breed with the present objectives.
 
In 1992-93 two more centres, one at Kattupakkam, Chennai and another at Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala was added in the AICRP network. During the year 2000-2001, two more centres at ICAR Research Complex, Goa and BAU, Ranchi were added to the AICRP network to study the performance of indigenous pig for two generations followed by their crossbreeding with Large White Yorkshire boars, taking the number of AICRP centres to eight. Most recently in 2008-09, two more centers CVSC & AH, CAU, Aizawl and Nagaland have added to AICRP network making the total number of units to ten.
Presently the following AICRP centers are in position.
Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati.
Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, M.P.
Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi
College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy.
Tamilnadu Veterinary Animal Science University, Kattupakkam.
Sri Venketeswara Veterinary University, Tirupati
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar
ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Goa
College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, CAU, Aizawl, Mizoram
SASARD, Nagaland University, Medziphema, Nagaland
To study the performance of indigenous pig under optimum managemental condition.
To produce crossbred by crossing indigenous pig with boars of exotic breed and to assess their performance in respect of efficiency of pig production and reproduction
To select animals from within the crossbreds with faster growth on economic ration to produce superior strain of improved pig.
To evolve economic pig ration with locally available feed ingredients, conventional/non-conventional.
To study the incidence of various diseases in pig so as to suggest areas for undertaking research to provide optimum health cover.
A. Health and Management
Health
Each centre should have a health advisory committee under the Chairmanship of Head, Department/Division of Medicine and comprising of experts from Gynaecology, Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology and Scientist In charge or V.O. of research centre. Chairman can also opt for any additional expert. The Committee will be responsible for diagnosis, treatment, reporting and monitoring of health during a reasonable time. Scientist In charge of the Center will be the liaison person. The recommendations were:
a)
Reporting of the disease should be specific and on the etiological basis, as far as possible. Non specific terms like debility, starvation, and autolysis/putrefaction should be avoided.
b)
For health coverage, a card for each animal may be maintained with proper records on routine testing, screening and vaccination.
c)
Strict monitoring of diseases should be done at every stage of life and proper records maintained.
d)
In view of the increasing incidence of swine Pasteurellosis, a specific vaccine incorporating swine Pasteurella strain may be evolved by the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. In the meantime, the available conventional Vaccine may be used for vaccinating pigs.
e)
Occurrence of various parasitic diseases may be monitored and routine prophylactic measures should be followed.
   
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Vaccination against swine fever and FMD should be made mandatory for each centre.
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Every centre may take steps to record various meteorological data so that occurrence of various diseases could be correlated and a forecast made. For this, additional provision for some of the important meteorological implement should be made.
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As a measure of prevention of gastro-enteritis (GE), Stafex-20 at recommended dose may be used as feed additive.
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All the dead pigs should be subjected to detailed PM examination. Specific cause should be ascertained and antibiotic sensitivity test should be done if of bacterial origin.
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Efforts should be made to control E. coli.
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Occurrence of various parasitic diseases may be monitored and routine prophylactic measures should be followed.
Management aspects:
Management group shall attempt to achieve
a)
Higher litter size and weight at weaning(strain/variety specific)
b)
Less inter-farrowing interval
c)
Good mothering ability
d)
Sustained profitability of pork production
 
In order to achieve the above objectives the following measures are recommended:
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Navel cord and needle teeth should be clipped at birth.
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Weakest piglings may be ensured accessibility to the teats as early as possible.
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Steps to prevent anaemia may be taken during first week of birth through injection of Inferno followed by vitamin B-Complex.
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Creep feeding may be started from 15th day and the creep feed may contain one of the sweetening agents like gur/molasses. Nutrition panel may develop preparation of creep ration with such sweetening agents for palatability.
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Weaning may be carried out at 6 weeks of age followed by castration of male piglets at 8-10 weeks and identification.
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The sows immediately after weaning may be given special feed to regain her health and to ensure early breeding.
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Weaned female piglets may be given specific grower ration and they should be observed for heat symptoms from 5 months of age.
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Breeding should be synchronized in such a way that piglets born are not exposed to adverse climatic conditions.
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Man to pig ratio should be kept around 1:25.
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Efficacy of early weaning (at 3-4 weeks of age) may be studied.
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Suitable provisions in the pig houses may be made depending on the climatic demand.
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Contribution of pig as a component of integrated farming may be evaluated and documented.
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Culling and disposal should be carried out at regular interval.
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Scientist I/C of the centre may collect information on no. of breeding units available as well as data on pork production and consumption.
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Period wise mortality should be made on Animal day basis.
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Efforts should be made to minimize the mortality particularly in first fortnight of birth of piglets. Mortality should not exceed 15% during preweaning and 5% during post weaning stages.
B. Nutrition and Physiology
 
All the centres must conduct experiments to evolve economic ration using conventional/unconventional feed ingredients. Two types of experiments may be conducted using 6 animals, as uniform as possible with respect to age and body weight.
 
a)
Feeding trial on locally available unconventional feed stuffs from weaning age to reproductive age up to first farrowing and weaning of first litter. The trial will consist of a minimum of three groups (control group + 2 treatment groups)
b)
Feeding Trial should start from weaning age and continue up to slaughter at 10 months or 75 kg body weight which ever is earlier.( Control + 2 treatment groups  in each trial)
Short-term experiment can be conducted for estimation of digestibility co-efficient whenever it is possible. The following parameters will be studied on regular basis.
1.
Reproductive Traits
2.
Productive traits and  Carcass characteristics
3.
Screening for the presence of toxic principles if any in the tested materials
4.
Economics of production.
5.
Locally available agro industrial byproducts/food wastes will be identified and chemical composition of the same will be determined
C. Breeding and Production
In general selection for males at 8th week on dam line, 24th week on sire line and that of females at 24th week of age should carried out.
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Genetic analysis using D2 statistics wherever applicable for different genetic group and to be carried out if the groups are not statistically significant and fall within the same cluster merging of group to be done.
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Selection of males and females (specifically) based on body weight and litter size.
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Body weight recording upto weaning at weekly intervals and later at 4 weekly intervals.
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Generate fresh males for inter-se-mating
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Selection index will be constructed based on litter size and litter weight at weaning, growth rate, and carcass traits such as back fat thickness and feed efficiency.
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Genetic analysis-Genetic gain per year and per generation has to be computed.
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Presentation of reports of every centre has to be uniform.
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Slaughter age/wt. will be 10 months or 70±5 kg which ever is earlier.
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Four field units, 3 fatteners + 1 breeding unit per centre. Data to be collected and recommendation to be made.
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It was recommended that genetic analysis of both groups-based on level of significance.
 
Centre wise recommendations:
IVRI Centre:
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Genetic analysis of both groups-based on level of significance merging can be done
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If Landrace is available make fresh introduction, if not, LWY will be used to avoid undesirable effects of inter se mating.
Tirupati, Jabalpur and Khanapara Centres:
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Genetic analysis-D square and cluster analysis-merging of  groups depending on results obtained.
Mannuthy Centre:
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Generate 75% crossbred from 15 normal farrowing (5 sire lines) and compare with 50% crossbred.
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Contemporary comparison– 50 and 75% for 2 generations
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Inter-se-mating for 2 generations among 50% and 75% separately
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Further programme will be based on the results obtained.
Kattupakkam Centre:
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30 successful crossbred farrowing from 10 sire lines
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Compare with desi in 1st generation
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Interse mating of 50% crossbred
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Further programme based on the results.
Goa and Ranchi Centre:
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Maintain 20 sows and 10 boars of local pigs through purchase. Select for conformation traits. Breed for a
 
Germplasm Produced/Supplied by the AICRP centres (X plan period)
AICRP Unit Born Supplied/Sold
Khanapara
829
417
Jabalpur
273
72
Ranchi
404
227
Mannuthy
736
633
Kattupakkam
760
858
Tirupati
781
790
Izatnagar
573
425
Goa
-
-
Grand total
4156
3422
A.
Animal Breeding and Production:
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Exotic pig landrace, Large White Yorkshire and Hampshire could be successfully raised and multiplied under organized farm condition.
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Genetic improvement of indigenous pig through pure selection programme was conducted in all eight centres of AICRP under different agro-climatic condition.
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Litter size at birth and weaning shows progressive improvement in growth rate of indigenous pig of Jharkand from 2002-06 (4.50±0.62 & 2.90±0.85 to 4.95±0.53 & 4.02±0.95). Similarly, the body weight at 32 weeks was also increased from 25.99 kg to 30.67 kg under systematic managerial condition.
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However, the genetic improvement of indigenous breed through pure breed selection programme was slow and time consuming.
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All groups of crossbred had higher litter productivity, growth rate and better feed conversion efficiency than indigenous pig.
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Large White Yorkshire and Hampshire crossbred carrying 75% exotic inheritance had higher value of litter trait than their respective 50% upgraded animal.
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Pig can be utilized effectively as a component in integrated farming system which will act as an insurance cover up for vice versa component. Significant improvement on economic gain could be observed under integrated farming system.
 
B.
Animal Nutrition:
Locally available feed resources like root crop (Tapioca, sweet potato etc.), brewery waste, used tea leave and other vegetable waste like cabbage, collocassia etc. could be used to increase the nutrient for developing economic ration for pig.
Various alternate source of energy and protein were identified: –
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Energy sources: Rice polish, molasses, tamarind seed, wheat bran, tea waste, pine apple waste, jackfruit waste and cashew apple.
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Protein sources: Silk worm pupae, sunflower cake.
Economic rations were evolved by partial or complete replacement of costly ingredient of the standard ration with the alternate feed sources.
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Replacement of fish meal by silk worm pupae reduced the cost of pig production.
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Replacement of maize with 20% tamarind seed and 5% molasses or 30% tamarind seed and 10% molasses increased average daily gain and lower cost per kg gain in body weight.
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Replacement of wheat bran up to 50% level with de caffeinated waste lower the cost of production.
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Cabbage is an important vegetable crop of North East India. Generally 50 to 70% of the biological yield cabbage are used as human consumption and remaining portion is discarded as waste which is primarily the green leaves. This waste can be fed to grower and finisher pig replacing 10% of the concentrate mixer in the daily feed allowances.
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Supplementation of yeast culture product containing enzyme improved A.D.G. and E.F.C. by 5 and 8% respectively.
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Cheleated mineral could be supplemented at a dose of 0.5% along with dicalcium phosphate in diet for better growth and feed conversion efficiency in pig.
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Fish meal can be replaced with dried katla fish waste silage without causing any deleterious affect on growth, feed efficiency or carcass quality with economic benefit.
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Dried katla fish bone meal could be used as calcium supplement in the ration for growing pigs replacing calcium carbonate.
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Incorporation of coconut oil at 2% level in the ration was found to improve the growth rate and feed conversion efficiency of grower pigs.
 

 

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